Sunday, October 20, 2019

SHIPWRECKS: A collection of old newspaper articles

Facebook has recently added the ability to add group posts to "topics" ... basically categories. This adds a whole new dimension to the value of some FB sites. Here's a booklet I created from Cathryn MacKay's old Fundy shipwreck posts.

Friday, October 18, 2019

THE FILE CABINET: The Aviation Collection

This Aviation Collection is from our file cabinets and contains working references, images and publication files. It is made available for reference and fair use purposes. 
The collection contain documents, drawings, photographs and other resources accumulated over a 50 year period, including public domain and copyright materials. Recent Creative Commons images, Wikibooks and links have been included where possible. 
This is a dynamic collection maintained for download from Microsoft OneDrive and will have new materials added as they are created or acquired.

Thursday, October 17, 2019

CALENDARS - Explore our small collection!!!

We love making our own calendars and have created this small collection featuring some of our own as well as some others that we have admired. Want to make your own? We included links to help with that!

The collection is small right now, but we will add to it over time. So bookmark us if you are interested.

Click on the following files to explore their content.



Friday, October 11, 2019

PIRATES: Captain Kidd and Campobello Island

Pirates of Passamaquody (Lubec Herald) May 23, 1907

According to the voracious History of the Dutch dynasty, one Captain Robert Kidd, buccaneer, was a man of distinction in the Dutch colony of the Bronx, where stories are still current of his generosity with other people's property. In one of his frequent voyages to the eastward of New Amsterdam, says this truthful history, his vessel, while in pursuit of a richly laden galleon, was stranded at Herring Cove, Campobello. In fact, the ancient wreck at that place, remembered by many citizens now living, partially accounts for the credence placed in the story of a great iron pot of gold buried in the sands and guarded by the spirit of a murdered accomplice.

In the recent wreck of the schooner ANNA on the end of Campobello, it has been demonstrated that lineal descendants of the pirate are still doing business at the old stand. When the vessel grounded on the Nancy Ledges at about 4 pm, April 30, the captain immediately signaled for assistance and Capt Guptill's crew from Station I, CSLSS responded at once, finding the vessel breaking up fast, and helping to secure everything of a portable nature that could be moved.

When the mizzenmast went by the board the vessel was abandoned. At low water the descendants of Captain Kidd got aboard, and stole a donkey engine weighing 800 pounds. The vessel meanwhile had been sold, the engines being a special inducement. Blocks and other movable property disappeared under the very eyes of the owners, at the hands of the young yegg-man - acts which committed elsewhere would be good for a term in the penitentiary.

From Grand Manan Old Newspaper Articles: Susian Lambert 

SHIPWRECKS: NEW ENGLAND Wrecked Off The Wolves Island - July 25, 1872

NEW ENGLAND Wrecked Off The Wolves Island - July 25, 1872

One of the finest steamers of the International Steamship Line was wrecked on the Wolves on Monday on her passage from St. John to Eastport. The following from the St. John Telegraph gives the particulars of the affair.

In reference to the disaster CAPT FIELD said that he was in the wheel house from the time the vessel left St. John until she struck. The fog was very thick and they made Lepreaux and ran pretty well by it, judging distance by the sound of the fog whistle. When clear of Point Leperaux he ran W by N for twenty two minutes when the course was changed to W 3-4N and run for forty five minutes, after which she was run W by N 1-4N.

The boat had not gone far on this course, and was running at full speed, when he saw the reef but a short distance ahead. He gave the signal to back, but the crank had not made half a revolution before she struck, forged ahead considerably on the reef and there remained fixed forward, settling away aft as she filled. She struck at ten minutes past eleven am. The passengers numbering about one hundred and twenty five or more, many of whom were women, got into the boat with little confusion and were sent ashore to the Island and the baggage soon followed. Then the officers and
crew set about saving what furniture and fixtures they could, while MR. BACON, the clerk, gathered up his papers and money and the Engineer drew the fires and blew the water out of the boilers to avoid an explosion.

While all this was going on the steam whistle was sounded constantly. A boat had also been dispatched for assistance and quite late in the afternoon met the BELLE BROWN near Eastport.

CAMPING OUT A sail was taken ashore and while some of the crew and passengers set about making a tent to accommodate the ladies, others busied themselves getting sofas, chairs, mirrors and other cabin furniture and fixtures either to the tent or some other place of safety on the shore. Even two horses were urged overboard and safely landed on the Island. Here it was feared all would have to spend the night and prospect was cheerless enough. The Captain,, himself, destroyed all the liquors in the saloon, and turkey, salmon, chicken tongue and crackers were sent ashore for those who were hungry. Water, however was scarce and some of the men had to bring it about a mile. Seldom have shipwrecked people camped on so uninviting a spot.

The eastern Wolf is one of a chain of three or more Islands which lie between Lepreaux and Grand Manan and are about four miles from one extremity to the other with ship channels between them. There is a lighthouse on the southwestern point of the chain and two families live on the Eastern Island. A passenger says: All the passengers behaved with the greatest courage and self possession, so little selfishness was manifested, so many noble traits were shown, that I shall ever have a better opinion of humanity.

CHIEF JUSTICE RITCHIE was quite prominent in his anxiety; to have the ladies saved first, and only one man was found who persisted in crowding himself into the first boatful of ladies. The officers have been zealous in their attention to the passengers – everything has been done for their comfort that could be done, and the captain was the last one to leave his post.

Towards nightfall the BELLE BROWN made her appearance and most of the passengers were safely transferred to her and those who desired it were provided with supper by the clerk, Mr. THOMPSON. Furniture, hawsers and other materials saved from the NEW ENGLAND were transferred to the BELLE BROWN and it was two o'clock this morning before she was loaded and ready to start for Eastport and St. Andrews.

From: Grand Manan Old Newspaper Articles: Susian Lambert

Wednesday, October 9, 2019

Current climate change was predicted 40 years ago - The Weather Network

Actually, it was more like 60 years ago. My mentor biogeographer Dr. Edwin Hagmeier and a few other scientists were showing how this would happen and the consequences back in the late 50s early 60s. What they didn't get was the timing and the human impact.


The Weather Network - Current climate change was predicted 40 years ago:

Mario Picazo
Tuesday, October 8th 2019, 2:56 pm - If greenhouse gas emissions continue to escalate at the current rate, we could be facing a global temperature increase of 3 to 4°C, well above what 19th-century scientists predicted.

The fact that Earth's climate is changing is something we’ve known for thousands of years. In fact, the Earth's climate has always been naturally changing since the planet formed some 4.5 billion years ago. For decades now, we have also known that Earth’s climate is also changing due to human activity — with a large portion of our daily activity being behind that change.

Forty years ago, a group of renowned scientists anticipated the recent changing trend in our planet’s climate record. Using the increasing concentration values of gases such as carbon dioxide, they were able to come up with a fairly close approximation of what our climate would be like today.
Screen Shot 2019-10-08 at 2.59.12 PM
(Photo: Jule Charney, Source: MIT Museum/Wikipedia)

The report was presented on July 1979 at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in Massachusetts and is known as the *Charney Report* in honour of one of the scientists who led the research, Jule Charney. The first session on carbon dioxide and climate, which brought the group together, had the main

Tuesday, October 8, 2019


Some folks seem to think that the maps we have been presenting that show projected sea rise at various locations around the Bay of Fundy represent some imminent change. They don't. They are designed to show what can be expected if global warming reaches certain levels of temperature rise. 

With regards to timing, the authors say: "When do we pass the point of no return, and lock in the future sea levels shown? Maps that compare temperature increases show sea level projections that lock in IF AND WHEN enough carbon emissions add up to lock in each temperature increase. The answers depend on our carbon choices, and could easily fall within this century for any of the temperature options."

So it depends on us. If we can meet the challenges posed by global warming, sea levels may not be as severe as those shown. If we don't meet the challenge, the most certainly will!

The full explanatory text follows:

Reading Sea level timing is critical for a clear understanding of when the sea level rise shown on these maps could occur in the future. These maps are based on peer-reviewed scientific research led by Benjamin Strauss and Scott Kulp of Climate Central in collaboration with Anders Levermann of the Potsdam Institute of Climate Impact Research, and published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Application of this research to areas outside the U.S. is detailed in the Mapping Choices report.
These notes are intended to help explain the research, the maps, and how to use them.

Sea level lock-in

Carbon pollution casts a long shadow. It is expected to persist in the atmosphere long enough to prolong temperature increases for hundreds and thousands of years, long after we stop burning fossil fuels or clearing forest. And the seas will continue to rise.
That’s what these maps are about. They do not show what sea levels will be in this century (see this map for near-term analysis). What they do show are scientific projections, taken from this paper, of the different post-2100 sea levels that could lock in this century, depending upon the carbon pathway we select. The areas colored blue are the areas below


The world’s leading climate scientists have warned there may be only a dozen years for global warming to be kept to a maximum of 1.5 C, beyond which even half a degree will significantly worsen the risks of drought, floods, extreme heat and poverty for hundreds of millions of people.. If so, the estimate on the right side would apply. Subscribe by email to get new posts on this subject. 

It is generally thought that tidal range may stay the same (20 - 50 feet in the Bay of Fundy), but that the cycle range will rise causing flooding to remain on land for a longer period and increasing risk of damage to coastal facilities

LNG: Good for the environment … really?

LNG presents fire risks, pollution risks, transport risks, marine fauna risk and greenhouse gas emissions.


Spending 10 years helping to protect Passamaquoddy Bay from several proposed LNG terminals, led to the accumulation of a lot of information on LNG and it’s not the environmental savior they say. If you would like to know more, check our documents at:

Bechtel-Shell LNG VallejoSince the current major discussion is about global climate change and the relationship to greenhouses gases from fossil fuels, we would like to critique the LNG situation at Saint John. Unfortunately, we have not yet been able to sort through available publications (see – Google search). However, since it seems we must immediately start changing our ways, we have presented for discussion here an extract from one of the documents we used during the Passamaquoddy Bay work; an edited analysis for Bechtel- Shell LNG plants in Vallejo, California for import-export terminals. While not directly comparable to Saint John, these figures will give an idea of the problems that are likely involved.

Emissions Facts:
  • The Bechtel-Shell plants will bring a number of sources of pollution into Vallejo:
  • The power plant
  • The LNG ships
  • The diesel-fueled dredgers, tugs and Coast Guard security
  • vessels
  • Helicopters
  • The Power Plant

The Power Plant
According to Shell, the 900-megawatt power plant alone will release over 1,692 tons per


The world’s leading climate scientists have warned there may be only a dozen years for global warming to be kept to a maximum of 1.5 C, beyond which even half a degree will significantly worsen the risks of drought, floods, extreme heat and poverty for hundreds of millions of people.. If so, the estimate on the right side would apply. Subscribe by email to get new posts on this subject. 

It is generally thought that tidal range may stay the same (20 - 50 feet in the Bay of Fundy), but that the cycle range will rise causing flooding to remain on land for a longer period and increasing risk of damage to coastal facilities.

Monday, October 7, 2019

SEA RISE IMPACTS AROUND THE BAY OF FUNDY - 5 - Tantramar - Will Nova Scotia become an island?

The world’s leading climate scientists have warned there may be only a dozen years for global warming to be kept to a maximum of 1.5 C, beyond which even half a degree will significantly worsen the risks of drought, floods, extreme heat and poverty for hundreds of millions of people.. If so, the estimate on the right side would apply. Subscribe by email to get new posts on this subject. 

It is generally thought that tidal range may stay the same (20 - 50 feet in the Bay of Fundy), but that the cycle range will rise causing flooding to remain on land for a longer period and increasing risk of damage to coastal facilities.

Sunday, October 6, 2019


The world’s leading climate scientists have warned there is only a dozen years for global warming to be kept to a maximum of 1.5 C, beyond which even half a degree will significantly worsen the risks of drought, floods, extreme heat and poverty for hundreds of millions of people.. If so, the estimate on the right side would apply. Subscribe by email to get new posts on this subject.

for the nay sayers, this is a "what if" presentation based on available scientific research. Nothing simple for sure. You can get all the supporting information here:

Friday, October 4, 2019

HISTORY: The Saxby Gale was 150 years ago today.

Victims of the Saxby Gale
Written by Eric Allaby from Facebook  - Just realized today is the 150th anniversary of the Saxby Gale (right about now 150 years ago): The Saxby Gale, October 4, 1869, was an unusually severe storm, breezing up to a violent southerly gale between six and eight o’clock that evening. The storm was named for Captain Saxby, a Royal Navy meteorologist, who predicted the storm with uncanny accuracy, based on observations of the anticipated relative positions of sun and moon on that date.

The storm was at its heaviest in the western Bay of Fundy, striking Charlotte County, New Brunswick, in the evening. Winds of over 100 mph damaged, capsized or beached a total of 160 vessels in the Quoddy Bay area. Ten vessels went ashore between Robbinston and Eastport, Maine; seven at Eastport, and twenty-three at West Quoddy. Lloyds List of October 9 reported “Great damage was done on the 4th October by storm and high tides at New Brunswick. Eastport, Maine, was entirely destroyed”.

All around the Bay of Fundy, major damage to shipping was reported. Of the nineteen vessels at anchor at Westport harbour when the gale commenced, eleven were driven ashore and one foundered

Wednesday, October 2, 2019

RADIATION FOR DINNER? Tritium Bioaccumulates in Blue Mussels – But what about scallops, clams and quahogs

Image of a blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) shell.
(Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Originally published June 8, 2015

Although tritium has been continuously released for years from the Point Lepreau Nuclear Power Station into the Bay of Fundy, we have been told repeatedly that it is within the accepted limits and that it is not a hazard to humans since skin penetration does not occur.

The potential for bioaccumulation has been well understood and the concern has always been that organically bound tritium would enter the food chain … this concern has been expressed by many citizens and professionals alike. Generally, the response has been platitudinous at best.

The research outlined below, has established the initial pathway for bioaccumulation from
phytoplankton to blue mussels an abundant shellfish in the Bay of Fundy.

The Blue Mussel is a filter-feeder that funnels water through its body to extract plankton for its nourishment. It is during this process that it takes in phytoplankton that have organically bound tritium. This tritium becomes locked into the mussels body and, as organically bound tritium, its life is increased many times … estimated to be 50 times by some researchers. Essentially this means it can be passed on to any human or animal consuming these affected bivalves.

This should be of major concern to seafood producers since scallops, clams, and quahogs are also filter-feeders and should be expected to bioaccumulate tritium in the same manner as blue mussels.

My take today. Art MacKay



Bioaccumulation of tritiated water in phytoplankton and trophic transfer of organically
bound tritium to the blue mussel, “Mytilus edulis.”
by dunrenard, July 2012

► Tritium was bioaccumulated into organic tritium in phytoplankton cells. ► Green algae
incorporated more tritium than the cyanobacteria. ► Organic tritium was transferred from
phytoplankton to blue mussels when ingested. ► Linear uptake of tritium into mussels
indicates a potential for biomagnification. ► Current legislation may underestimate
accumulation of tritium in the environment.

Large releases of tritium are currently permitted in coastal areas due to assumptions that it
rapidly disperses in the water and has a low toxicity due to its low energy emissions. This
paper presents a laboratory experiment developed to identify previously untested scenarios
where tritium may concentrate or transfer in biota relevant to Baltic coastal communities.
Phytoplankton populations of Dunaliella tertiolecta and Nodularia spumigena were exposed at
different growth-stages, to tritiated water (HTO; 10 MBq l−1). Tritiated D. tertiolecta was then
fed to mussels, Mytilus edulis, regularly over a period of three weeks. Activity concentrations
of phytoplankton and various tissues from the mussel were determined.

Both phytoplankton species transformed HTO into organically-bound tritium (OBT) in their
tissues. D. tertiolecta accumulated significantly more tritium when allowed to grow
exponentially in HTO than if it had already reached the stationary growth phase; both
treatments accumulated significantly more than the corresponding treatments of
N. spumigena. No effect of growth phase on bioaccumulation of tritium was detectable in
N. spumigena following exposure.

After mussels were given 3 feeds of tritiated D. tertiolecta, significant levels of tritium were
detected in the tissues. Incorporation into most mussel tissues appeared to follow a linear
relationship with number of tritiated phytoplankton feeds with no equilibrium, highlighting the
potential for biomagnification.

Different rates of incorporation in species from a similar functional group highlight the
difficulties in using a ‘representative’ species for modelling the transfer and impact of tritium.

Accumulations of organic tritium into the mussel tissues from tritiated-phytoplankton
demonstrate an environmentally relevant transfer pathway of tritium even when waterconcentrations
are reduced, adding weight to the assertion that organically bound tritium acts
as a persistent organic pollutant.

The persistence, potential for biomagnification and the increased toxicity of organic tritium
increases the potential impact on the environment following a release of HTO; current
legislation does not adequately take into account the nature of organic forms of tritium and
therefore may be underestimating accumulation and toxic effect of tritium in the environment.
Such information is necessary to accurately assess the distribution of tritium following routine
releases, and to adequately protect the environment and humans.

Source :

ISSUES: 15,000 years of climate change and northward migration of animals

This presentation outlines the retreat of the Laurentide Glacier, climate changes and the northern migration of terrestrial, aquatic, and ocean animals and ecosystems ... which continues today on land and in the sea.

Why are right whales roaming into danger off the East coast? | CBC Radio

Changing oceanographic conditions mean whales are not where they once were

A whale discovered entangled in fishing gear in the Gulf of St. Lawrence was rediscovered just two weeks later off Cape Cod and freed in a difficult operation. (Centre for Coastal Studies/NOAA Permit #18786-03)

This summer, eight more endangered North Atlantic right whales were found dead in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. These latest deaths have increased the pressure on whale researchers to understand why the whales have begun moving so unpredictably in the waters around Eastern Canada.
The hope is if they can understand why the whales are moving, they can predict those movements and better protect the whales.
Kimberley Davies, a whale biologist from the University of New Brunswick in Saint John, along with colleagues from Dalhousie University and New England Aquarium in Boston, spent several weeks on a 20-meter crab fishing boat this summer studying whales that appeared in large numbers in the Gulf of St. Lawrence.
Up until about 2010, North Atlantic right whales spent most of their summer feeding and raising their young in the waters of the Gulf of Maine and Bay of Fundy. In these waters, the whales' movements were reasonably well understood, and limits could be put on shipping — to reduce risk of fatal ship strikes — and on fishing, to reduce the risk of dangerous entanglement in fishing gear.
But in more recent years, the right whales have been showing up in large numbers in the busy waters of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and the result has been an increase in whale deaths — with a peak in 2017, when a dozen whales died in Canadian waters.  Only about 400 whales survive, so these losses are unsustainable to a long-lived and slow-reproducing population.Davies and her colleagues have found that one significant reason for the whales' unpredictable movement is that their food source seems to be moving.  The distribution of the tiny zooplankton called copepods that the whales eat has been shifting with changing oceanographic conditions off the east coast.
MORE AT: Why are right whales roaming into danger off the East coast? | CBC Radio

ISSUES: Cracks form in foundation of NH nuclear power plant

Just a short distance south of the Bay of Fundy this old nuclear plant, like Point Lepreau Nuclear Power Plant, this plant recently had its operating license extended. 


Cracks form in foundation of NH nuclear power plant. Bangor Daily News

Jim Richmond via Wikimedia Commons | BDN
The Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant in New Hampshire.

The Associated Press • September 25, 2019 11:32 am

SEABROOK, New Hampshire — Neighbors of the Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant have told a federal panel that they want more transparent, independent monitoring of cracks that have formed in the plant’s concrete foundation.

New Hampshire Public Radio reports they spoke Monday before a panel of administrative judges for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. They are weighing whether Seabrook’s owner, NextEra, adequately studied the cracks.

The hearing was granted to a watchdog group C-10, which cites an independent expert in contending that NextEra didn’t properly study the cracks in order to write their monitoring plan.

NextEra based its monitoring plan for Seabrook’s concrete on a study, and regulators approved that plan.

Regulators extended Seabrook’s operating license through 2050 earlier this year, despite calls to delay that decision until after the hearing.

Tuesday, October 1, 2019

WHALES: DFO confirms second endangered blue whale found dead in Gulf of St. Lawrence

Necropsy won't be possible because of blue whale's advanced state of decomposition

The Department of Fisheries and Oceans is confirming the death of this blue whale. (HO-Fisheries, Oceans and the Canadian Coast Guard/The Canadian Press)

The Department of Fisheries and Oceans is confirming a second blue whale death last month in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and is again saying an examination of the cause will not be possible.
The blue whale carcass was reported to the department Sept. 7 by a cargo ship and confirmed by Transport Canada and Fisheries Department aircraft about 110 kilometres north of Gaspesie.

DFO said it identified the species from photos, but officials determined a necropsy wasn't feasible due to the advanced state of decomposition.
Spokesperson Barre Campbell said in an email the animal's large size and distance from shore also factored into the decision.
The department had earlier reported a dead juvenile blue whale found on Sept. 18 just northwest of Port Hood, N.S., in Cape Breton, saying a full necropsy wasn't possible in that case either.
A spokesperson said this was because the whale's body was decomposed and in an inaccessible location, and there wasn't a suitable vessel available to tow the whale

Monday, September 30, 2019

EXPLORE NEW BRUNSWICK: Greenlaw Mountain Hawk Watch, Charlotte County, NB

E. Farlow, J. Wilson, N. Hawkins viewing from the Top

FROM: Kennebecasis Naturalist Society - Greenlaw Mountain Hawk Watch 2014

Colin Pyette and I drove to Charlotte County to try our luck as observers for the Greenlaw Mountain Hawk Watch. From Sussex it's a approximately an hour and 50 minute drive to the base of the mountain, located just outside St. Andrews, and a 50 minute climb (at least for us) to the observation site. It was well worth the climb for the view alone!

We spent the next four and a half hours with some very experienced birders: Jim Wilson (well known New Brunswick birder and past president of the NB Bird Records Committee), Hank Scarth (avid naturalist and past chairman of the NB Wildlife Council), Todd Watts (Project Coordinator and Official Counter for GMHW), plus two knowledgeable local observers. All these participants, quite frankly, amazed both Colin and me with their ability to not only spot these raptors from a great distance but their skill in identifying them at those distances.

Though the majority of the birds soared at quite a distance from our observation point several flew impressively low and their proximity to the group was much appreciate by all.
  • During our stay we observed the following species:
  • Bald Eagle
  • Turkey Vulture
  • Sharp-shinned Hawk
  • Broad-wing Hawk
  • American Kestrel
  • Osprey
  • Downey Woodpecker
  • American Goldfinch
  • Nuthatch
  • Raven
  • Common Loon
For future reference I would only recommend those reasonably fit for this outing. It's a good narrow dirt road but has a couple of relatively steep sections in it with loose gravel under foot. An active person, with no physical disabilities, could likely do it in 35 minutes. We debated on whether or not to bring up our collapsible chairs and, after reaching the observation site, were very glad to have made the decision to leave them behind. There are several rock ledges to sit and rest on and lugging the chairs up that incline, in my opinion, would have been unnecessary. We were told to dress in layers and that proved to be very beneficial for the winds where substantially different between the bottom and top of the mountain. A spotting scope, along with binoculars, is a must for this outing.

I can honestly say that I observed more hawks on this outing than I've seen in total over my life time. It was an eye opener for me for I had no idea that such a place existed in New Brunswick. Todd Watt's knowledge and his ability to identify these birds so quickly was both amazing and humbling. He was also pleased to share what he had learned over the past 5 years on the top of that mountain. It was an enjoyable outing and I would recommend it to all outdoor enthusiasts.

Broad-wing Hawk
H.Scarth, T.Watts, C.Pyette, N.Hawkins

M.Macaulay, T.Watts, C.Pyette, N.Hawkins
Thanks to Mark M. for the report and photos. The bottom two photos were by Jim Wilson

Friday, September 27, 2019

How climate change is threatening to cut off Nova Scotia from mainland Canada

 According to the UN, the land link between New Brunswick and Nova Scotia is one of the most vulnerable areas to climate change in all of North America. How climate change is threatening the Chignecto Isthmus.

Alicia Draus has more. How climate change is threatening to cut off Nova Scotia from mainland Canada

Sunday, September 15, 2019


VIDEO - Great White Rescue Back Bay, NB

WHO WOULD HAVE THOUGHT! The History of the Oceans Is Locked in Whale Earwax

The Astonishing History Locked in Whale Earwax - The Atlantic:


Whales are big, whales are long-lived, and whales have paddle-shaped flippers instead of dexterous hands. These three traits inexorably lead to a fourth: Over time, whales accumulate a lot of earwax.
Whale earwax forms like yours does: A gland secretes oily gunk into the ear canal, which hardens and accumulates into a solid, tapering plug. In the largest whales, like blues, a plug can grow up to 10 inches long, and looks like a cross between a goat’s horn and the world’s nastiest candle. Fin whale wax is firmer than blue whale wax, bowhead whale wax is softer and almost liquid, and sei whale wax is dark and brittle. But regardless of size or texture, these plugs are all surprisingly informative.

As whales go through their annual cycles of summer binge-eating and winter migrations, the wax in their ears changes from light to dark. These changes manifest as alternating bands, which you can see if you slice through the

Friday, September 13, 2019

The herbicide glyphosate persists in wild, edible plants: B.C. study | Vancouver Sun

The herbicide glyphosate persists in wild, edible plants: B.C. study | Vancouver Sun:

Lisa Wood, a forester and assistant professor at the University of Northern B.C., is the author of a study on the impact of aerial spraying of the herbicide glyphosate in the Canadian Journal of Forest Research.

Lisa Wood, a forester and assistant professor at the University of Northern B.C., is the author of a study on the impact of aerial spraying of the herbicide glyphosate in the Canadian Journal of Forest Research. HANDOUT

Edible and medicinal forest plants that survive aerial spraying of glyphosate can retain the herbicide and related residues for at least a year, a new study has found.
“The highest and most consistent levels of glyphosate and AMPA (aminomethylphosphonic acid) were found in herbaceous perennial root tissues, but shoot tissues and fruit were also shown to contain glyphosate in select species,” according the study published in the Canadian Journal of Forest Research.
Herbicides containing glyphosate are used by forest companies to kill aspen and other broadleaf plants in areas that have been logged and replanted with trees of commercial value such as Douglas fir and pine, according to the Ministry of Forests.
When herbicides are sprayed by aircraft, the spray can deliver non-lethal doses of glyphosate to nearby “non-target plants,” some of which may store the compound indefinitely or break it down very slowly, said author Lisa Wood, a registered professional forester and assistant professor of forest ecology at the University of Northern B.C.
Wood found unexpected levels of glyphosate in new shoots and berries of plants that survived an aerial herbicide application made one year earlier.

Thursday, August 22, 2019

How deforestation of the Amazon has led to fires.

Anyone who has visited a true rain forest, whether in the Amazon, British Columbia, or Asia, must be struck by the dampness below the massive canopy of ancient trees, a canopy that holds and maintains water that is vital to all local plants and animals and indeed the future of the entire earth. The following timelapse clearly illustrates the destruction of the vital forests which has led to our current fear for the future.

Meanwhile, Canadian and American clear-cutting has led to devastating fires in British Columbia, Alberta and virtually every Canadian province.