Monday, October 28, 2019

Saturday, October 26, 2019

VIKINGS: Butternut tree suggests Vikings ‘went well beyond L’Anse aux Meadows,’ amateur historian says

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The endangered butternut tree may hold clues to where else the Vikings visited in Canada. (Elke Semerad/CBC)
An amateur historian believes an endangered New Brunswick tree species strongly indicates that Vikings once visited the province.
The butternut tree is found along the lower St. John River Valley and was once quite bountiful before over-harvesting.
This tree is found in New Brunswick, but not in Newfoundland.
At L’Anse aux Meadows, the only confirmed Viking site in Canada, located in Newfoundland and Labrador, there is evidence of butternut tree logs. The logs were cut with European tools, which would seem to rule out their importation by Indigenous people.
The presence of foreign logs cut by European tools near a Viking settlement makes Tim McLaughlin, secretary of the New Brunswick Historical Society, believe that Vikings harvested the logs in New Brunswick.
“It’s a suggestion, a very strong suggestion that the Norse, or the Vikings, went well beyond L’Anse-aux-Meadows a thousand years ago,” said Tim McLaughlin, secretary of the New Brunswick Historical Society.
The theory is gaining some traction, with Parks Canada’s senior archeologist emerita Birgitta Wallace telling CBC News in 2018 that she believes Vikings did visit the province.

The sagas

The Norse sagas, semi-factual stories about the Vikings, talk about a place called Vinland.
The sagas, written between 1200 and 1300, describe battles and travels that took place between the 9th and 11th centuries.
Vinland is described as a paradise, with high tides and grapes and warmer than Greenland, which the Vikings also explored.

Norse sagas gathered hundreds of years ago tell of Vinland, a place that has a lot in common with New Brunswick, according to amateur historian Tim McLaughlin. (Adrienne Lamb/CBC)
This can be used to describe areas in New Brunswick, McLaughlin said.
“They found wild grapes, they found big trees, they experienced extremely high tides, they encountered a lot of wildlife a lot of salmon and different fish, whales and so forth,” said McLaughlin.
“It was a relatively mild land compared to where they come from, Greenland, which is fairly inhospitable.”

Where in New Brunswick

According to McLaughlin, there are two areas in the province that people believe are Vinland: Miramichi and the Bay of Fundy coast.
Miramichi is, of course, closer to Newfoundland, and the Vikings would not have had to sail around the Maritimes to get there.

Tim McLaughlin, shown here with a butternut sapling, believes Vikings visited the Fundy coast. (Elke Semerad/CBC)
But McLaughlin thinks the Fundy coast is more likely, since butternut trees and grapes are more plentiful in southern New Brunswick.
“Just the descriptions of the landscape I tend to think that it accords more with the Bay of Fundy than Miramichi,” said McLaughlin.

Forgotten history?

While the province may have a legitimate claim to the title of Vinland, this isn’t really promoted.
McLaughlin said this is because there is no concrete artifacts or site that people can point to, such as L’Anse-aux-Meadows because Vinland wasn’t a place where the Vikings settled down.

The Vikings wouldn’t have built any permanent settlements in Vinland, as they did at L’Anse aux Meadows in Newfoundland, which were later reconstructed, McLaughlin says. (Submitted by Wendy Nuttall)
“They didn’t build any permanent structures,” said McLaughlin.
“They built what they called booths, which were temporary structures, and they were really just here to gather resources. So it’s really not that surprising that we haven’t found anything in New Brunswick to connect it with Vineland.”
McLaughlin is hosting a talk about the province’s possible connections to the Vikings on Tuesday at the New Brunswick Museum in Saint John.

With files from Elke Semerad and Information Morning Saint John

Friday, October 25, 2019

ISSUES: Nuclear Radiation ... you can't see it, smell it or taste it ... why worry?

It's true. You generally can't see, taste, or smell nuclear radiation and folks really, really don't seem to worry about it.

See what it looks like and understand that some forms of radiation can penetrate your body with harmful impacts. And it can kill!!



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Thursday, October 24, 2019

ISSUES: NUCLEAR ACCIDENTS - LIST OF 93 PLUS GLOBAL NUCLEAR REACTOR MELTDOWNS/FIRES

Just so everyone in aware! 1942 to 2015

Chalk River, Canada

1962 - 2015 – RTG's; 9 Deadly Radioactive Plutonium Reactor Containing Satellites Exploded, Melted And/Or Burned Up On Reentry - Radioactive Heavy Metal Poison Dust Breathed In By Everyone On The Planet, 1 Microgram Is Enough To Kill A Person - 79 Nuclear Reactors Orbiting Earth

1942 – Leipzig, Germany, L-IV Atomic Pile Melts Down

1940-1943 - Chicago Pile I - First US Nuclear Plant Meltdown? - Nuclear Reactor Buried In Woods, Argonne Labs, Cook County Illinois, Red Gate Woods, Radioactive Waste Secretly Dumped Into 2 Mile Creek And Well

1952 - Chalk River, Ontario, Canada, NRX Reactor Melted Down

1954 - US Borax 1 - 5 Reactors Melted Down And Blown Up, 100% On Purpose

1955 - US EBR - Experimental Breeder Reactor Melts Down

1957 - UK Sellafield, Cumbria - Windscale Sellafield: Biggest Covered Up UK Nuclear Disaster

1957 - Ozyorsk, Russia - Mayak Nuclear Waste Reprocessing Center Disaster And Coverup

1958 - Chalk River, Ontario Canada - NRU Chalk River Nuclear Reactor Meltdown

1958 - US National Reactor Testing Station, HRTE Nuclear Reactor Assembly Melted Down

ISSUES:Rod Cumberland on Deer, Forests. Towns, and Forest Management

"Rod Cumberland Interview on John Higgins Live" John Higgins interviews wildlife biologist Rod Cumberland on Charlotte County Television while taking calls live on TV from viewers watching at home. Cumberland, a former professor at the Maritime College of Forest Technology in Fredericton, gets candid with Higgins and CHCO-TV viewers about his well-known history speaking out against the use of the controversial herbicide glyphosate in the New Brunswick forest industry. Born and raised in St. Stephen, Cumberland also talks about his extraordinary life and career in New Brunswick.
Original air date: October 20, 2019 John Higgins LIVE is Charlotte County Television (CHCO-TV) original production, produced in studio in St. Andrews, New Brunswick, Canada.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

SHIPWRECKS: A collection of old newspaper articles

Facebook has recently added the ability to add group posts to "topics" ... basically categories. This adds a whole new dimension to the value of some FB sites. Here's a booklet I created from Cathryn MacKay's old Fundy shipwreck posts.



Friday, October 18, 2019

THE FILE CABINET: The Aviation Collection

This Aviation Collection is from our file cabinets and contains working references, images and publication files. It is made available for reference and fair use purposes. 
The collection contain documents, drawings, photographs and other resources accumulated over a 50 year period, including public domain and copyright materials. Recent Creative Commons images, Wikibooks and links have been included where possible. 
This is a dynamic collection maintained for download from Microsoft OneDrive and will have new materials added as they are created or acquired.

Thursday, October 17, 2019

CALENDARS - Explore our small collection!!!






We love making our own calendars and have created this small collection featuring some of our own as well as some others that we have admired. Want to make your own? We included links to help with that!

The collection is small right now, but we will add to it over time. So bookmark us if you are interested.

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Click on the following files to explore their content.

  

IDEAS THAT DIED - THE GEORGETOWN CONFERENCE, PEI


Friday, October 11, 2019

PIRATES: Captain Kidd and Campobello Island

Pirates of Passamaquody (Lubec Herald) May 23, 1907


According to the voracious History of the Dutch dynasty, one Captain Robert Kidd, buccaneer, was a man of distinction in the Dutch colony of the Bronx, where stories are still current of his generosity with other people's property. In one of his frequent voyages to the eastward of New Amsterdam, says this truthful history, his vessel, while in pursuit of a richly laden galleon, was stranded at Herring Cove, Campobello. In fact, the ancient wreck at that place, remembered by many citizens now living, partially accounts for the credence placed in the story of a great iron pot of gold buried in the sands and guarded by the spirit of a murdered accomplice.

In the recent wreck of the schooner ANNA on the end of Campobello, it has been demonstrated that lineal descendants of the pirate are still doing business at the old stand. When the vessel grounded on the Nancy Ledges at about 4 pm, April 30, the captain immediately signaled for assistance and Capt Guptill's crew from Station I, CSLSS responded at once, finding the vessel breaking up fast, and helping to secure everything of a portable nature that could be moved.

When the mizzenmast went by the board the vessel was abandoned. At low water the descendants of Captain Kidd got aboard, and stole a donkey engine weighing 800 pounds. The vessel meanwhile had been sold, the engines being a special inducement. Blocks and other movable property disappeared under the very eyes of the owners, at the hands of the young yegg-man - acts which committed elsewhere would be good for a term in the penitentiary.

From Grand Manan Old Newspaper Articles: Susian Lambert 

SHIPWRECKS: NEW ENGLAND Wrecked Off The Wolves Island - July 25, 1872

NEW ENGLAND Wrecked Off The Wolves Island - July 25, 1872


One of the finest steamers of the International Steamship Line was wrecked on the Wolves on Monday on her passage from St. John to Eastport. The following from the St. John Telegraph gives the particulars of the affair.

In reference to the disaster CAPT FIELD said that he was in the wheel house from the time the vessel left St. John until she struck. The fog was very thick and they made Lepreaux and ran pretty well by it, judging distance by the sound of the fog whistle. When clear of Point Leperaux he ran W by N for twenty two minutes when the course was changed to W 3-4N and run for forty five minutes, after which she was run W by N 1-4N.

The boat had not gone far on this course, and was running at full speed, when he saw the reef but a short distance ahead. He gave the signal to back, but the crank had not made half a revolution before she struck, forged ahead considerably on the reef and there remained fixed forward, settling away aft as she filled. She struck at ten minutes past eleven am. The passengers numbering about one hundred and twenty five or more, many of whom were women, got into the boat with little confusion and were sent ashore to the Island and the baggage soon followed. Then the officers and
crew set about saving what furniture and fixtures they could, while MR. BACON, the clerk, gathered up his papers and money and the Engineer drew the fires and blew the water out of the boilers to avoid an explosion.

While all this was going on the steam whistle was sounded constantly. A boat had also been dispatched for assistance and quite late in the afternoon met the BELLE BROWN near Eastport.

CAMPING OUT A sail was taken ashore and while some of the crew and passengers set about making a tent to accommodate the ladies, others busied themselves getting sofas, chairs, mirrors and other cabin furniture and fixtures either to the tent or some other place of safety on the shore. Even two horses were urged overboard and safely landed on the Island. Here it was feared all would have to spend the night and prospect was cheerless enough. The Captain,, himself, destroyed all the liquors in the saloon, and turkey, salmon, chicken tongue and crackers were sent ashore for those who were hungry. Water, however was scarce and some of the men had to bring it about a mile. Seldom have shipwrecked people camped on so uninviting a spot.

The eastern Wolf is one of a chain of three or more Islands which lie between Lepreaux and Grand Manan and are about four miles from one extremity to the other with ship channels between them. There is a lighthouse on the southwestern point of the chain and two families live on the Eastern Island. A passenger says: All the passengers behaved with the greatest courage and self possession, so little selfishness was manifested, so many noble traits were shown, that I shall ever have a better opinion of humanity.

CHIEF JUSTICE RITCHIE was quite prominent in his anxiety; to have the ladies saved first, and only one man was found who persisted in crowding himself into the first boatful of ladies. The officers have been zealous in their attention to the passengers – everything has been done for their comfort that could be done, and the captain was the last one to leave his post.

Towards nightfall the BELLE BROWN made her appearance and most of the passengers were safely transferred to her and those who desired it were provided with supper by the clerk, Mr. THOMPSON. Furniture, hawsers and other materials saved from the NEW ENGLAND were transferred to the BELLE BROWN and it was two o'clock this morning before she was loaded and ready to start for Eastport and St. Andrews.

From: Grand Manan Old Newspaper Articles: Susian Lambert

Wednesday, October 9, 2019

Current climate change was predicted 40 years ago - The Weather Network

Actually, it was more like 60 years ago. My mentor biogeographer Dr. Edwin Hagmeier and a few other scientists were showing how this would happen and the consequences back in the late 50s early 60s. What they didn't get was the timing and the human impact.

AM

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The Weather Network - Current climate change was predicted 40 years ago:

Mario Picazo

Tuesday, October 8th 2019, 2:56 pm - If greenhouse gas emissions continue to escalate at the current rate, we could be facing a global temperature increase of 3 to 4°C, well above what 19th-century scientists predicted.

The fact that Earth's climate is changing is something we’ve known for thousands of years. In fact, the Earth's climate has always been naturally changing since the planet formed some 4.5 billion years ago. For decades now, we have also known that Earth’s climate is also changing due to human activity — with a large portion of our daily activity being behind that change.

Forty years ago, a group of renowned scientists anticipated the recent changing trend in our planet’s climate record. Using the increasing concentration values of gases such as carbon dioxide, they were able to come up with a fairly close approximation of what our climate would be like today.

Screen Shot 2019-10-08 at 2.59.12 PM
(Photo: Jule Charney, Source: MIT Museum/Wikipedia)
The report was presented on July 1979 at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in Massachusetts and is known as the *Charney Report* in honour of one of the scientists who led the research, Jule Charney. The first session on carbon dioxide and climate, which brought the group together, had the main

Tuesday, October 8, 2019

WHAT THE BAY OF FUNDY SEA RISE IMPACT MAPS MEAN


Some folks seem to think that the maps we have been presenting that show projected sea rise at various locations around the Bay of Fundy represent some imminent change. They don't. They are designed to show what can be expected if global warming reaches certain levels of temperature rise. 

With regards to timing, the authors say: "When do we pass the point of no return, and lock in the future sea levels shown? Maps that compare temperature increases show sea level projections that lock in IF AND WHEN enough carbon emissions add up to lock in each temperature increase. The answers depend on our carbon choices, and could easily fall within this century for any of the temperature options."

So it depends on us. If we can meet the challenges posed by global warming, sea levels may not be as severe as those shown. If we don't meet the challenge, the most certainly will!

The full explanatory text follows:

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Reading Sea level timing is critical for a clear understanding of when the sea level rise shown on these maps could occur in the future. These maps are based on peer-reviewed scientific research led by Benjamin Strauss and Scott Kulp of Climate Central in collaboration with Anders Levermann of the Potsdam Institute of Climate Impact Research, and published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Application of this research to areas outside the U.S. is detailed in the Mapping Choices report.
These notes are intended to help explain the research, the maps, and how to use them.

Sea level lock-in

Carbon pollution casts a long shadow. It is expected to persist in the atmosphere long enough to prolong temperature increases for hundreds and thousands of years, long after we stop burning fossil fuels or clearing forest. And the seas will continue to rise.
That’s what these maps are about. They do not show what sea levels will be in this century (see this map for near-term analysis). What they do show are scientific projections, taken from this paper, of the different post-2100 sea levels that could lock in this century, depending upon the carbon pathway we select. The areas colored blue are the areas below

SEA RISE IMPACTS AROUND THE BAY OF FUNDY - 2.3 - Campobello Island


The world’s leading climate scientists have warned there may be only a dozen years for global warming to be kept to a maximum of 1.5 C, beyond which even half a degree will significantly worsen the risks of drought, floods, extreme heat and poverty for hundreds of millions of people.. If so, the estimate on the right side would apply. Subscribe by email to get new posts on this subject. 

It is generally thought that tidal range may stay the same (20 - 50 feet in the Bay of Fundy), but that the cycle range will rise causing flooding to remain on land for a longer period and increasing risk of damage to coastal facilities

LNG: Good for the environment … really?

LNG presents fire risks, pollution risks, transport risks, marine fauna risk and greenhouse gas emissions.


lng-terminal-jp

Spending 10 years helping to protect Passamaquoddy Bay from several proposed LNG terminals, led to the accumulation of a lot of information on LNG and it’s not the environmental savior they say. If you would like to know more, check our documents at: https://www.scribd.com/lists/2705807/ENERGY-LNG

Bechtel-Shell LNG VallejoSince the current major discussion is about global climate change and the relationship to greenhouses gases from fossil fuels, we would like to critique the LNG situation at Saint John. Unfortunately, we have not yet been able to sort through available publications (see – Google search). However, since it seems we must immediately start changing our ways, we have presented for discussion here an extract from one of the documents we used during the Passamaquoddy Bay work; an edited analysis for Bechtel- Shell LNG plants in Vallejo, California for import-export terminals. While not directly comparable to Saint John, these figures will give an idea of the problems that are likely involved.

Emissions Facts:
  • The Bechtel-Shell plants will bring a number of sources of pollution into Vallejo:
  • The power plant
  • The LNG ships
  • The diesel-fueled dredgers, tugs and Coast Guard security
  • vessels
  • Helicopters
  • The Power Plant

The Power Plant
According to Shell, the 900-megawatt power plant alone will release over 1,692 tons per

SEA RISE IMPACTS AROUND THE BAY OF FUNDY - 2.5 - Grand Manan Island


The world’s leading climate scientists have warned there may be only a dozen years for global warming to be kept to a maximum of 1.5 C, beyond which even half a degree will significantly worsen the risks of drought, floods, extreme heat and poverty for hundreds of millions of people.. If so, the estimate on the right side would apply. Subscribe by email to get new posts on this subject. 

It is generally thought that tidal range may stay the same (20 - 50 feet in the Bay of Fundy), but that the cycle range will rise causing flooding to remain on land for a longer period and increasing risk of damage to coastal facilities.

Monday, October 7, 2019

SEA RISE IMPACTS AROUND THE BAY OF FUNDY - 5 - Tantramar - Will Nova Scotia become an island?



The world’s leading climate scientists have warned there may be only a dozen years for global warming to be kept to a maximum of 1.5 C, beyond which even half a degree will significantly worsen the risks of drought, floods, extreme heat and poverty for hundreds of millions of people.. If so, the estimate on the right side would apply. Subscribe by email to get new posts on this subject. 

It is generally thought that tidal range may stay the same (20 - 50 feet in the Bay of Fundy), but that the cycle range will rise causing flooding to remain on land for a longer period and increasing risk of damage to coastal facilities.


Sunday, October 6, 2019

SEA RISE IMPACTS AROUND THE BAY OF FUNDY - 3 - SAINT JOHN AREA


The world’s leading climate scientists have warned there is only a dozen years for global warming to be kept to a maximum of 1.5 C, beyond which even half a degree will significantly worsen the risks of drought, floods, extreme heat and poverty for hundreds of millions of people.. If so, the estimate on the right side would apply. Subscribe by email to get new posts on this subject.


for the nay sayers, this is a "what if" presentation based on available scientific research. Nothing simple for sure. You can get all the supporting information here: https://choices.climatecentral.org/#when

Friday, October 4, 2019

HISTORY: The Saxby Gale was 150 years ago today.

Victims of the Saxby Gale
Written by Eric Allaby from Facebook  - Just realized today is the 150th anniversary of the Saxby Gale (right about now 150 years ago): The Saxby Gale, October 4, 1869, was an unusually severe storm, breezing up to a violent southerly gale between six and eight o’clock that evening. The storm was named for Captain Saxby, a Royal Navy meteorologist, who predicted the storm with uncanny accuracy, based on observations of the anticipated relative positions of sun and moon on that date.


The storm was at its heaviest in the western Bay of Fundy, striking Charlotte County, New Brunswick, in the evening. Winds of over 100 mph damaged, capsized or beached a total of 160 vessels in the Quoddy Bay area. Ten vessels went ashore between Robbinston and Eastport, Maine; seven at Eastport, and twenty-three at West Quoddy. Lloyds List of October 9 reported “Great damage was done on the 4th October by storm and high tides at New Brunswick. Eastport, Maine, was entirely destroyed”.


All around the Bay of Fundy, major damage to shipping was reported. Of the nineteen vessels at anchor at Westport harbour when the gale commenced, eleven were driven ashore and one foundered

Wednesday, October 2, 2019

RADIATION FOR DINNER? Tritium Bioaccumulates in Blue Mussels – But what about scallops, clams and quahogs

Image of a blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) shell.
(Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Originally published June 8, 2015 bayoffundy.ca/archives/

Although tritium has been continuously released for years from the Point Lepreau Nuclear Power Station into the Bay of Fundy, we have been told repeatedly that it is within the accepted limits and that it is not a hazard to humans since skin penetration does not occur.

The potential for bioaccumulation has been well understood and the concern has always been that organically bound tritium would enter the food chain … this concern has been expressed by many citizens and professionals alike. Generally, the response has been platitudinous at best.

The research outlined below, has established the initial pathway for bioaccumulation from
phytoplankton to blue mussels an abundant shellfish in the Bay of Fundy.

The Blue Mussel is a filter-feeder that funnels water through its body to extract plankton for its nourishment. It is during this process that it takes in phytoplankton that have organically bound tritium. This tritium becomes locked into the mussels body and, as organically bound tritium, its life is increased many times … estimated to be 50 times by some researchers. Essentially this means it can be passed on to any human or animal consuming these affected bivalves.

This should be of major concern to seafood producers since scallops, clams, and quahogs are also filter-feeders and should be expected to bioaccumulate tritium in the same manner as blue mussels.

My take today. Art MacKay

References:
https://www.nirs.org/radiation/tritium/tritium06122007gphazardreport.pdf
http://www.ccnr.org/Media_Release_2012_02.pdf
http://nuclearsafety.gc.ca/pubs_catalogue/uploads/CNSC_Release_and_Dose_eng_rev2.pdf
http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/Library/261283.pdf

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KEY RESEARCH

Bioaccumulation of tritiated water in phytoplankton and trophic transfer of organically
bound tritium to the blue mussel, “Mytilus edulis.”
by dunrenard, July 2012

Highlights
► Tritium was bioaccumulated into organic tritium in phytoplankton cells. ► Green algae
incorporated more tritium than the cyanobacteria. ► Organic tritium was transferred from
phytoplankton to blue mussels when ingested. ► Linear uptake of tritium into mussels
indicates a potential for biomagnification. ► Current legislation may underestimate
accumulation of tritium in the environment.

Large releases of tritium are currently permitted in coastal areas due to assumptions that it
rapidly disperses in the water and has a low toxicity due to its low energy emissions. This
paper presents a laboratory experiment developed to identify previously untested scenarios
where tritium may concentrate or transfer in biota relevant to Baltic coastal communities.
Phytoplankton populations of Dunaliella tertiolecta and Nodularia spumigena were exposed at
different growth-stages, to tritiated water (HTO; 10 MBq l−1). Tritiated D. tertiolecta was then
fed to mussels, Mytilus edulis, regularly over a period of three weeks. Activity concentrations
of phytoplankton and various tissues from the mussel were determined.

Both phytoplankton species transformed HTO into organically-bound tritium (OBT) in their
tissues. D. tertiolecta accumulated significantly more tritium when allowed to grow
exponentially in HTO than if it had already reached the stationary growth phase; both
treatments accumulated significantly more than the corresponding treatments of
N. spumigena. No effect of growth phase on bioaccumulation of tritium was detectable in
N. spumigena following exposure.

After mussels were given 3 feeds of tritiated D. tertiolecta, significant levels of tritium were
detected in the tissues. Incorporation into most mussel tissues appeared to follow a linear
relationship with number of tritiated phytoplankton feeds with no equilibrium, highlighting the
potential for biomagnification.

Different rates of incorporation in species from a similar functional group highlight the
difficulties in using a ‘representative’ species for modelling the transfer and impact of tritium.

Accumulations of organic tritium into the mussel tissues from tritiated-phytoplankton
demonstrate an environmentally relevant transfer pathway of tritium even when waterconcentrations
are reduced, adding weight to the assertion that organically bound tritium acts
as a persistent organic pollutant.

The persistence, potential for biomagnification and the increased toxicity of organic tritium
increases the potential impact on the environment following a release of HTO; current
legislation does not adequately take into account the nature of organic forms of tritium and
therefore may be underestimating accumulation and toxic effect of tritium in the environment.
Such information is necessary to accurately assess the distribution of tritium following routine
releases, and to adequately protect the environment and humans.

Source :
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0265931X12001890